There arc several different types of aphis (green-, black- and white-fly) which attack all our crops by sucking the sap and causing
the leaves to curl, become yellow and fall prematurely. Good control can be maintained by spraying or dusting with either nicotine
or derris. Denis is also very effective in destroying the many different caterpillars which cause a lot of damage in our gardens,
principally by eating holes in leaves, as well as in the stems, flowers and fruits of our plants.
There are a number of different species of slugs and snails, but the small kinds are most numerous and destructive, principally by
devouring seedlings. They are best baited with bran and Paris green, or those so inclined may hand-pick them after dark with the
aid of a torch.
The millipede, which gnaws roots, corms, tubers, etc., is often mistaken for a centipede which is much more active and is our friend.
The millipede has a hard-jointed coated body with a great number of legs and can be trapped with a sliced carrot or potato or
alternatively by forking naphthalene into the soil.
The apple sawfly is quite frequently confused with the Codlin moth, for the grubs of both eat into the flesh of the apple. Points of
difference are that the sawfly eats into the flesh of the fruit rather than the core. Apple trees should be sprayed every year
immediately after petal fall as a precaution, with nicotine to control the sawfly and derris to combat Codlin moth.
The wireworm is the larvae of the click beetle, so called by the clicking noise which it makes with its wings. It lives in the soil and
devours both roots and tubers of many kinds, similar to the leather jacket which is the well-known "daddy long legs". Both of these
soil-inhabiting pests arc eradicated by digging or hoeing naphthalene into the soil.
Woodlice attack almost all soft stemmed plants by eating irregular holes in leaves, gnawing roots or devouring tiny seedlings, and
they roll themselves into a ball when disturbed. They are best trapped with an inverted flower pot stuffed with straw, hay, or a
poison bait such as Paris green and bran.
Of the more common diseases generally met with, mildew must be mentioned. It seems to thrive most abundantly when the air is
damp and the ground dry. Growth is crippled rather than killed outright, and the fungus which attacks a great variety of fruit,
vegetables and flowers should be sprayed with collodial sulphur or dusted with flowers of sulphur.
Most years there occurs an outbreak of potato blight, especially if the season is a warm and wet one. Black blotches appear on the
leaves and the tubers turn brown and deeply. As a precaution every year about early July we should prevent attack by spraying with
Bordeaux mixture or Burgundy mixture.
Club root occurs at all seasons and is worst on acid soils, attacking all kinds of brassicas by destroying the fibrous roots and causing
the larger ones to swell and decay with an evil smell. The soil should be very heavily limed, and the ground treated with mercuric
chloride prior to sowing.
Damping off is not really a single disease but a group of closely allied diseases which attacks seedlings and sometimes older plants
just about soil level. As a result the plant wilts and topples over, so one should try to sterilise the soil with formalin before seed
sowing or to water the seedlings with Cheshunt compound.
With silver leaf of fruit trees the leaves take on a metallic silvery sheen. Branches and the whole tree may die in time. All affected
wood should be cut out between June and August and burnt.
In addition to certain diseases there is a vast number of diseases caused by viruses. Symptoms are varied and include leaf distortion,
variegation, mottling, bronzing, rolling, curling and dwarfing, and generally the plants are more often weakened than killed. No
real cures are known and attacked plants should be generally destroyed.
The above few notes have been written merely to act as a guidance, and the various insecticides and fungicides mentioned may be
obtained from leading chemists and horticultural sundries-men and the makers' recommendations should be strictly followed.
V H S.
A Visit to a Paper Mill
The time ticked endlessly on, but at last eleven o'clock came. I hurried upstairs and was soon changed out of my working dollies
and into my clean ones.
We had a quick dinner at half past eleven so as seated in good time to get to the coach.
At twelve o'clock we were seated and ready to leave very comfortable coach.
The journey to reach Gravesend, Kent, took about t two hours. We took the London road from Hertford to Hoddesdon and then the
A 10 to London. From London we took the Rochester road for a fair distance and then turned off on to a smaller road which look
us to Gravesend.
At last we arrived at the famous Northfleet Paper Mill where the Northfleet paper is made.
As we approached the building four guides came out to meet us and we were divided into four groups; the group I was in
Consisted of, Mr. Purkis, Tony Anjous, John Blackman, David and Bill Charlton, Winston Norton, Geoffrey Rose and
We started the tour by going to the engineers' and carpenters' shops where spare parts for the factory were made. We then entered
the main building and up a long flight of stairs where a strange smell got worse the higher we climbed. On the top floor we saw the
men pushing grass down a wind tunnel where mud and dust was taken out. This grass is known as Esparto grass and is imported
from Malta, Spain and North Africa, and is shipped to the Mill about every month.
The next room we entered was where the grass was put into large "tanks" and boiled after which bleach is added at various intervals
and the pulp is beaten in large beaters and comes out in a dirty white lumpy substance rather like porridge. It is then bleached at
various points again and water is added, it then goes into large tanks where it is fed into a huge long machine which converts the
pulp into a continuous sheet of paper.
In the next part of the factory we saw paper being made from wood pulp which looked like huge sheets of blotting paper before
being re-pulped. This wood pulp is imported from Russia, Canada, Australia and Scandinavia. The wood pulp is thrown into
beaters to be beaten into a fine kind of pulp and is bleached several times and washed and taken out to a paper machine and treated
rather like the grass.
Our next visit was to the paper room where it is sorted out, cut and counted. I thought it was very good the way the women found
the smallest defects in the sheets, especially as they were working at such a fast speed. There was also a man counting the sheets
in lots of five hundred at a time, also at great speed.
Last of all we visited the works canteen where a meal of egg, ham and chips was served, followed by bread, butter and jam, cakes
and tea. This was really a wonderful meal and very much appreciated by us all.
I'm sure we all enjoyed the tour of the Mill and I would like to thank the firm very much for their hospitality.